“European rules of origin are considered too complex in Asia,” said Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, director of the European Centre for International Political Economy. Under RCEP, members can “act under a certificate in all 15 countries … If you have simple rules of origin that you can understand, why would you trade with the EU? In a speech on the 2016 presidential campaign, Republican Party candidate Donald Trump promised to withdraw the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership if elected. He argued that the agreement would “undermine” the U.S. economy and its independence.   On November 21, 2016, in a video message, Trump outlined an economic strategy to “put America first” and said he would “negotiate fair bilateral trade agreements that will bring jobs and industry back to U.S. shores.” As part of the plan, Trump confirmed his intention to see the United States withdraw from the Trans-Pacific Partnership for his first day in office.    McConnell argued that the TPP would not be taken into account at the lame meeting of the congress ducks before Trump`s inauguration.  In 2013, Nobel prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz warned that it would “serve the interests of the richest” on the basis of leaked TPP projects.   The work organized in the United States argued during the negotiations that the trade agreement would primarily benefit businesses at the expense of manufacturing and service workers.  The Economic Policy Institute and the Center for Economic and Policy Research argued that the TPP could lead to job losses and lower wages.
  The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) has been at the heart of President Barack Obama`s strategic pivot for Asia. Before President Donald J. Trump withdrew the United States in 2017, the TPP was to become the world`s largest free trade agreement, covering 40 percent of the world economy. The Comprehensive Regional Economic Partnership (RCEP) will eliminate tariffs on a wide range of products for its Member States for nearly a decade and establish common rules on e-commerce, trade and intellectual property. In May 2015, U.S. Congressman Sander Levin argued that it was difficult to impose trade agreements because he questioned Vietnam`s willingness to comply with TPP labor standards.  According to a report by U.S. Senator Elizabeth Warren, there is a significant gap between the labour standards of previous U.S. free trade agreements and the effective application of those rules.
 However, PIIE analysts note that studies show that the presence of “sticks” (possible suspension of trade benefits) and “carrots” (technical assistance) in trade agreements increases the likelihood that work commitments in trade agreements will have a positive effect; there are sticks as well as carrots in the TPP.  A 2016 study by political scientists Todd Allee and Andrew Lugg of the University of Maryland found that of the 74 previous trade agreements signed by TPP members since 1995, the TPP text is closest to that of previous U.S. trade agreements.  A 2017 study showed that the TPP has gained great value over other trade agreements in terms of a government`s ability to freely adopt and implement rules in certain areas of law and order.  Morin and Baumier of the Canada Research Chair in International Political Economy (Letter for the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development) argue that while the TPP contains an impressive number of environmental provisions and a wide range of environmental protection zones, very few of these standards are innovative, most of which have been copied in previous U.S. agreements , and that the TPP missed an opportunity to make an original and progressive contribution to the environmental agenda.